CAT Calling : Part IV


There are three types of tenses
1. Present
2. Past and
3. Future

1. Present Tense

Present Indefinite

Rules :

  • Permanent truths and Habits
The sun rises in the east.
  • Events that will take place in future but have been planned beforehand
The train leaves at 8 pm in the evening.
  • In Exclamatory sentences beginning with ‘here’ and ‘there’
Here comes Mr Sharma.
There goes the shuttlecock.
  • Official Announcements
PM arrives on Sunday.
  • In Affirmative(Declaring) Sentences with the first and second person, and third person plurals
we use first or basic form of the verb For eg I go to Switzerland during vacations.
  • But with third person singulars we use s or es with the basic form of verb
He goes to Switzerland during vacations
  • Negative Sentences : Do not and Does not(third person singular)
  • Interrogative Sentences : Do + subject + first form of verb
Present Continuous
For actions going on at the time of speaking 
  • Affirmative: Is, am are + present participle
He is going to the shopping mall
  • In negative sentences, not is inserted between the auxiliary and main verb
He is not singing the song
  • Interrogative Sentences
Is, am, are + (not) + first form of verb + ing
Aren’t you studying ?
Present Perfect Tense(has/have, just)
For events completed in recent past or whose effect is felt in present
The keyword JUST or its essence is compulsory
I have          They have    You have
He has          We have
Present Perfect Continuous (has been/have been, for/since)
For events that started in past and has continued up until now
I have been   They have been     You have been
He has been   We have been
Past Tense
Past Indefinite
For a completed action in the past
He watched a movie yesterday.
  • Affirmative Sentences : Always use first or second form of the verb. It rained heavily throughout the night.
  • Negative Sentences : Did not + first form of verb. It did not work properly yesterday.
  • Interrogative Sentences : Did + subject + first form of verb.Did the guard wake you up last night. 
Past Continuous Tense (was/were+ present participle)
To denote an action going on some time in the past.
We were roaming around in the mall throughout the evening.
Always follow was/were + present participle
Past Perfect Tense (Before/When,had + past participle)
Can’t be complete without mentioning two events and specifying which of them occurred earlier.
                       1                              2
When I got married                  I had taught English.
So completion of english teaching before an event.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense(had been+ present participle, since/for)
It shows an action that began in the past before a certain point and also has continued up to that 
I had been writing for 2 years.
Future Tense
Future Indefinite Tense(shall/will)
To express the future as a fact or something expected to happen in the future
I shall be 25 next month.
I think India will win the Samsung Series.
Can is the word of ability.
May is the word of permission.
Future Continuous 
For actions taking place at some time in future
I will be playing cricket in the evening.
  • Will/Shall be + Present participle
  • Affirmative : I shall be going.
  • Negative : I shall not be going.
  • Interrogative : Shall I be going ?
Future Perfect (By, shall/will have)
To show completion of an action by a certain time in future.
By the month end, we shall have completed the process.
  • Negative : She will not have played. Will she have played ?
Future Perfect Continuous(By Specific date, shall/will have been)
For an action that will be in progress over a period of time and will continue in the future.
By next March, we shall have been studying here for one year.
Tense should remain same throughout the sentence.
Remove otiose words from sentences 
Follow Parallelism.

No Action Mean No Tenses

  1. Fact Based – I am a student
  2. Imperative Sentences – 
  • Requests
  • Wishes God Bless You
  • Commands Get Out
     3. Subjunctive Sentences (Hypothetical)
If I were Barack Obama, I would have spoken.

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