For conscience’s sake, for god’s sake, at his finger’s ends, the boat’s crew
- When one noun is qualified by 2 possessive nouns both must have possessive sign unless joint possession is indicated.
Joint Possession – Charles Dickens the novelist’s penchant for the poignant portrayal of human emotions has earned him immense respect in the literary world.
Here portrayal of human emotions is jointly qualified by Charles Dickens and novelist so the apostrophe comes with the last one.
Had the two been different entities both would have had an apostrophe.
Object should be in objective case and subject in subjective case
- Object of a verb or preposition when it is pronoun should be in objective form.
Her(objective case, not she), who had been the apple of his eye, he now began to regard with something like distinct.
Him(objective case, not He), who had always inspired in her a respect which almost overcame her affection, she now saw the object of open pleasantry.
- In definite pronoun ‘one’ should be used throughout if used at all
One cannot be too careful about what one says.
Some uncountable nouns are
Accommodation, permission, scenery, traffic, behavior, weather, work, information, travel, chaos, luck
bread, advice, baggage, damage……\
He gave me an advice (wrong).
He gave me a piece of advice(correct)
As we had discussed above , uncountable nouns may or may not take an article.
But a/an are used only for singular countable nouns and nothing else.
Collective Nouns They refer to a single unit,(single word nouns like family, army, jury etc)
Collective Noun take the same type of persons or things and regard them as one entity.
Inanimate collective nouns take singular verb only
People : A faculty of academicians, A babble of barbers, A bench of bishops, A shuffle of bureaucrats
A conjunction of grammarians, A worship of writers
Reptiles : A quiver of cobras, A bask of crocodiles, A nest of vipers
Fish : A flock of dolphins, A hover of trout, A swarm of eels, A shiver of sharks, A troop of dogfish,
Insects : An intrusion of cockroaches, A plague of locusts, A clutter of spiders, A flight of butterflies
Birds : A murder of crows, A wake of buzzards, A parliament of owls, A run of poultry, A descent of woodpeckers
Rules for pronouns
- Check whether the pronoun used is correct in terms of being subjective, objective and possessive
- Check for the precedent noun pronoun is referring, Is the pronoun correct in gender, number, tense et al
- After ‘than’ or ‘as’ we use objective case. X is better than him
- Gerunds(verb + ing) always take possessive case.
I hope you don’t mind my/ me asking ?
It should be my asking (see table at the top) Gerunds always take possessives.
You doing or Your doing ? should be your, as it it the possessive case
Who/Whom and Whoever or Whomever ?
Who is used as a subject and whom as an object
When in doubt try to answer the question.
Who do you think is the most promising candidate ?
I think he(subjective since who is subjective) is
Whom do you consider the most promising candidate ?
I consider him ( Objective case since whom is objective)